Alaska is a vast and varied state, offering experiences ranging from the cosmopolitan comforts of cities like Anchorage to the raw, untamed wilderness of places like the Brooks Range. Whether you’re looking for cultural immersion, outdoor adventure, or simply the serene beauty of nature, Alaska promises an unforgettable journey.
Brief History of Alaska
Long before Russia’s Peter the Great sent Vitus Bering to explore these icy waters, Alaska was inhabited by Indigenous peoples for thousands of years. The Aleuts, Inuit, Athabaskans, Tlingit, Haida, and others shaped the land’s rich tapestry. Their vibrant cultures, traditions, and histories are deeply interwoven with the land itself. Russian settlers arrived in the 18th century, establishing trading posts and Orthodox Christian missions. But it was in 1867, for a mere $7.2 million, that the U.S. bought Alaska. The subsequent Gold Rush in the late 19th century brought a flood of prospectors, leading to the establishment of many towns still in existence today.
Gold Rush History
The allure of gold transformed Alaska in the late 19th century. Thousands of prospectors, drawn by tales of abundant gold, braved the rugged terrain and challenging conditions in hopes of striking it rich.
- Skagway: Once the gateway to the Klondike gold fields, Skagway swelled from a First Nations camp to a bustling town almost overnight. The town’s historic district is like a walk back in time, with well-preserved buildings, boardwalks, and even the White Pass & Yukon Route Railroad, which once transported hopeful miners to the goldfields.
- Juneau: Alaska’s capital began as a mining camp after Joe Juneau and Richard Harris discovered gold in 1880. Today, remnants of its gold rush history are visible throughout the city. The Last Chance Mining Museum offers a glimpse into Juneau’s mining past.
- Nome: Another iconic gold rush town, Nome’s beaches were legendary for their rich gold deposits. Every year, people still try their luck panning for gold on the city’s beaches. The Carrie M. McLain Memorial Museum delves deep into Nome’s gold rush history.
- Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park: Spanning both Alaska and Washington State, this park commemorates the 1897-98 gold rush and includes a Visitor’s Center in Seattle, the old townsite of Dyea, the Chilkoot Trail, and much of Skagway.
Books on the Alaskan Gold Rush. Fiction:
- “The Call of the Wild” by Jack London: While more widely recognized as a tale of a dog’s journey into the wild, this classic novel paints a vivid picture of the Klondike Gold Rush and the harsh realities faced by both humans and animals.
- “The Floor of Heaven: A True Tale of the Last Frontier and the Yukon Gold Rush” by Howard Blum: A thrilling narrative that intertwines the lives of a prospector, a con man, and a detective during the height of the Yukon Gold Rush.
- “Gold Rush Women” by Claire Rudolf Murphy and Jane G. Haigh: This book offers a glimpse into the lives of women during the gold rush, from entrepreneurial women who ran businesses to those who joined the search for gold.
- “Klondike: The Last Great Gold Rush, 1896-1899” by Pierre Berton: An authoritative account that covers every aspect of the Klondike Gold Rush, from the journey of the stampeders to the challenges they faced in the wild.
Visiting these historic sites and diving into these books will surely offer a comprehensive and immersive experience of Alaska’s storied Gold Rush past.
Google Map with key sights in Alaska
Before we dive in, here’s the highlight of this guide – a comprehensive Google Map pinpointing all the attractions, eateries, and points of interest.
Overview of Alaska’s Geography
Alaska stretches over 660,000 square miles, making it larger than Texas, California, and Montana combined. It boasts over 33,000 miles of coastline, more than all other U.S. states combined. From the rainforests of the Southeast’s Inside Passage to the treeless plains of the Arctic North, its landscapes are as varied as they are vast. Add to that over 3,000 rivers, countless islands and islets, and you have a geographic marvel.
Weather and Climate
Alaska spans different climate zones due to its vast size, varied topography, and its position stretching from the Pacific Ocean to the Arctic Circle.
Coastal Areas (Gulf of Alaska & Southeast Alaska):
- Temperature: Coastal regions, like Juneau and Sitka, typically have milder temperatures because of the Pacific Ocean’s moderating influence. Summer highs average around 55-65°F, while winter temperatures often stay above freezing, ranging between 20-35°F.
- Precipitation: These areas have a maritime climate, which means they receive significant rainfall. Ketchikan, for instance, can get over 150 inches of rain annually, earning it the title of one of the rainiest places in the U.S.
Interior Alaska (Including Fairbanks & Denali):
- Temperature: The interior can see wide temperature swings. Summer days can be surprisingly warm, with temperatures soaring into the 80s or even low 90s°F. Winters, however, are harsh and can see temperatures drop to -40°F or colder, especially in the northernmost areas.
- Precipitation: This region experiences a continental climate, with relatively dry conditions. Snow, however, can be substantial during winter months, providing a white blanket over the landscape.
Southcentral Alaska (Including Anchorage):
- Temperature: Anchorage, located between the mountains and the sea, enjoys relatively mild conditions. Summer highs hover around 55-75°F, and winter temperatures range between 5-30°F.
- Precipitation: The region gets a mix of rain and snow, with winters being snowier and summers experiencing periodic rainfall.
Arctic and Far North (Including Barrow & Nome):
- Temperature: As one would expect, the Arctic region is the coldest. In places like Barrow, winter temperatures can average -20°F, and even summer temperatures rarely exceed 45°F.
- Precipitation: The Arctic is primarily a desert, receiving little precipitation. However, snow can linger due to the persistently cold temperatures.
- Temperature: The chain of islands extending towards Russia experiences cool temperatures year-round, rarely exceeding 60°F in summer or dropping below 20°F in winter.
- Precipitation: The Aleutians, particularly the western islands, are exposed to frequent storms, resulting in considerable rain and wind.
Daylight Variations: Equally notable as its temperature is Alaska’s daylight variation. During summer solstice, places above the Arctic Circle experience 24 hours of sunlight, known as the “midnight sun.” Conversely, in the depths of winter, they endure extended darkness. Even in Anchorage, summer days can be 19 hours long, while winter sees merely 5 hours of daylight.
Major Natural Attractions
- Denali: The highest peak in North America, Denali, formerly known as Mount McKinley, rises 20,310 feet. This snow-capped giant is not just an attraction for mountaineers but also for those looking to witness one of Earth’s most majestic mountains.
- Glaciers: Alaska is home to numerous glaciers, with the most famous being the Mendenhall Glacier near Juneau and the Columbia Glacier near Valdez. Glacier Bay, a labyrinth of fjords and tidewater glaciers, is also a must-visit.
- Kenai Fjords: Located near Seward, these fjords are a maze of glacial valleys submerged by the sea. It’s a hotspot for marine life, including sea lions, puffins, and whales.
- Northern Lights: The Aurora Borealis can be witnessed in many parts of Alaska, particularly in the Fairbanks region. These ethereal light displays paint the winter skies in vibrant hues.
- Inside Passage: This coastal route is famous for its rainforests, mountains, fjords, and islands. It’s a popular route for cruises.
- Alaska Wildlife Conservation Center: Located near Girdwood, this center provides a close-up view of Alaska’s wildlife, including bears, moose, and bison.
- Kodiak Island: Renowned for its population of Kodiak bears, the island also boasts rich fisheries and pristine landscapes.
National Parks in Alaska
- Denali National Park and Preserve: Encompassing over six million acres, this park centers around Denali itself. It’s a haven for wildlife, including grizzly bears, caribou, and wolves.
- Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve: The largest national park in the U.S., it’s a wilderness of glaciers and peaks, including Mount St. Elias, the second-highest peak in the country.
- Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve: This coastal park features a dynamic landscape of tidewater glaciers, snow-capped mountains, and deep fjords.
- Kenai Fjords National Park: A coastal park known for its glaciers, marine wildlife, and the iconic Harding Icefield.
- Katmai National Park and Preserve: Best known for the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes and its brown bear population, this park offers a unique wilderness experience.
- Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve: Located entirely within the Arctic Circle, it’s a pristine wilderness without any roads. It’s the northernmost national park in the U.S.
- Kobuk Valley National Park: Home to the Great Kobuk Sand Dunes and caribou migration routes, it’s a testament to Alaska’s varied landscapes.
- Lake Clark National Park and Preserve: A mosaic of terrains, from its turquoise lakes to steaming volcanoes, it’s a remote haven for diverse wildlife.
- Bering Land Bridge National Preserve: It celebrates the region’s rich history, once serving as a bridge for human migration between Asia and America. It offers a mix of tundra, mountains, and coasts.
- Yukon-Charley Rivers National Preserve: This preserve protects the entire Charley River basin, an untouched ecosystem. It’s also a tribute to the gold rush era.
- Aniakchak National Monument and Preserve: This is one of the least visited national parks due to its remoteness, centered around the Aniakchak Crater.
- Sitka National Historical Park: Located in the heart of Sitka, it commemorates the 1804 Battle of Sitka between Russian traders and the Tlingit people. It’s also home to beautiful totem poles.
Wildlife Viewing Opportunities
Alaska, often referred to as America’s “last frontier,” offers unparalleled wildlife viewing experiences. Here are some of the top animals you might encounter and where to find them:
- Kodiak Island: Home to the Kodiak bear, a subspecies of the brown bear and the largest type of brown bear in the world. The island offers guided bear-viewing tours which are a once-in-a-lifetime experience.
- Katmai National Park: Renowned for its brown bear population, especially at Brooks Falls, where you can watch bears catch salmon right out of the air during spawning season.
- Juneau & Seward: Both locations are gateways to whale-watching excursions. You can often spot humpback whales ‘bubble net feeding’ or breeching. Orcas, or killer whales, are also commonly seen, recognized by their tall dorsal fins and contrasting black and white patterns.
- Whale Fest in Sitka: Celebrated in November, this festival offers an exceptional opportunity for whale enthusiasts to indulge in workshops, excursions, and symposiums centered around marine life.
- Denali National Park: A drive through the park’s solitary road offers chances to spot moose grazing. Their massive size and impressive antlers (on males) make them a sight to behold.
- Kincaid Park in Anchorage: Another popular spot to view moose in a more urban setting. Early mornings or late afternoons are usually the best times.
Bald Eagles: These iconic American birds can be seen all over Alaska, especially in coastal areas where they feed on fish.
Caribou: Found in many parts of Alaska including the Arctic region, their massive migrations are one of nature’s great spectacles.
Dall Sheep: These white, mountain-dwelling sheep can be spotted on rocky outcrops, especially along the Seward Highway south of Anchorage.
Tips for Encountering Wildlife Safely
- Maintain Distance: Always view wildlife from a safe distance. For bears, a recommended safe distance is at least 300 yards.
- Never Feed Wildlife: Feeding can make them aggressive and may also make them dependent on human food, which is harmful to their health.
- Hiking Noise: When hiking, make occasional noise to alert animals to your presence, reducing the chance of surprising them.
- Bear Spray: Carry and know how to use bear spray when hiking in bear country.
- Avoid Wildlife Babies: Mother animals are very protective of their young and may become aggressive if they feel their babies are threatened.
- Secure Food & Trash: When camping, ensure all food and trash are stored in bear-proof containers or hung out of their reach.
- Understand Behavior: Learn to understand animal behavior. For example, a bear standing on its hind legs is typically trying to get a better view and isn’t necessarily threatening.
- Join Guided Tours: Especially for bear viewing, consider joining a guided tour. Expert guides can provide a safer viewing experience and share their knowledge.
- Respect Nature: Remember you’re in their home. Treat all wildlife with respect, and remember the experience is about observing and not interacting.
Experiencing Alaska’s wildlife is an unforgettable adventure. Armed with knowledge and respect for these magnificent creatures, you can ensure your encounters are memorable for all the right reasons.
Road Trip Ideas in Alaska
Alaska’s vast landscapes and scenic routes make it an ideal location for memorable road trips. Here are a few curated routes with detailed stops:
1. The Seward Highway: Anchorage to Seward
Distance: Approx. 127 miles one way
- Anchorage: Start your trip in Alaska’s largest city. Visit the Anchorage Museum or take a walk on the Tony Knowles Coastal Trail.
- Potter’s Marsh: A few miles south of Anchorage, it’s an excellent location for bird-watching.
- Beluga Point: Around Mile 110, this viewpoint offers a chance to spot Beluga whales, especially during July and August.
- Girdwood & Alyeska Resort: Detour for a tram ride up Mount Alyeska or hike in summer and ski in winter.
- Portage Valley & Begich, Boggs Visitor Center: Learn about the nearby glaciers or venture onto the Portage Glacier Lake.
- Seward: End your trip in this scenic harbor town. Visit the Alaska SeaLife Center or embark on a Kenai Fjords National Park cruise.
2. The Glenn & Richardson Highways: Anchorage to Valdez
Distance: Approx. 305 miles one way
- Anchorage: Start point.
- Eklutna Lake: A recreational area just off the Glenn Highway. Perfect for kayaking or hiking.
- Matanuska Glacier: Around Mile 101, you can get up close with this massive glacier. Guided ice treks are available.
- Wrangell-St. Elias National Park Visitor Center: Near Copper Center, it provides a glimpse into the vast park, the largest in the U.S.
- Thompson Pass: A high mountain pass known for its stunning views and waterfalls. Consider stopping at Worthington Glacier.
- Valdez: Known as “Little Switzerland,” this coastal town is surrounded by steep mountains and glaciers.
3. The Denali Highway: Cantwell to Paxson
Distance: Approx. 135 miles one way
Note: This route is mostly gravel, so ensure your vehicle is equipped for it.
- Cantwell: Your starting point, located on the Parks Highway.
- Tangle Lakes: A series of long narrow lakes that are ideal for canoeing and fishing.
- Maclaren Summit: The highest point on the Denali Highway, providing panoramic views.
- Brushkana Creek Campground: A Bureau of Land Management site and a great spot for overnight camping.
- Paxson: The endpoint. From here, you can decide to head south to Valdez or north to Fairbanks.
4. The Dalton Highway: Fairbanks to Deadhorse
Distance: Approx. 414 miles one way
Note: This is a remote route. Make sure to carry extra supplies, including fuel.
- Fairbanks: The golden heart city and your starting point.
- Yukon River Crossing: Around Mile 56, it’s the only bridge crossing the Yukon River in Alaska.
- Arctic Circle Sign: A popular photo spot marking your crossing into the Arctic region.
- Coldfoot: Roughly the halfway point. Consider visiting the Arctic Interagency Visitor Center.
- Atigun Pass: The highest highway pass in Alaska, offering dramatic views.
- Deadhorse & Prudhoe Bay: The endpoint. Optionally, take a tour to the Arctic Ocean.
Alaskan Events and Festivals
Alaska, with its unique culture and traditions, hosts a plethora of events and festivals throughout the year. Here’s a detailed look at some of the most popular ones:
1. Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race (March)
Location: Anchorage to Nome
One of the most iconic events in Alaska, this grueling 1,000-mile dog sled race commemorates the 1925 serum run to Nome. The ceremonial start happens in Anchorage, while the official restart location can vary.
2. Fur Rendezvous (Late February to Early March)
Commonly referred to as “Fur Rondy,” this winter festival boasts events like the World Championship Sled Dog Races, snow sculpture competition, and the Running of the Reindeer.
The festival celebrates Alaska’s fur trading history.
3. Alaska State Fair (August, 16 — September, 2 2024)
A classic state fair experience with a distinct Alaskan twist. Enjoy concerts, agricultural exhibits, and don’t miss out on the giant vegetable displays—a testament to Alaska’s summer sun.
4. Midnight Sun Festival (June 22, 2024)
Celebrating the summer solstice, this event sees 21 hours of functional daylight in Fairbanks. It includes street games, live music, and various other entertainment options in the heart of downtown Fairbanks.
5. Whale Fest (November)
A week-long marine science symposium that brings together researchers, students, and marine enthusiasts. Apart from the symposium, the event features food, music, art, and marine-themed fun.
6. Talkeetna Moose Dropping Festival (July)
This quirky event celebrates, well, moose droppings. The highlight is a competition where moose dung is dropped from a crane, and participants bet on where it will land.
The festival also includes other events like a parade and 5k run.
7. Stikine River Garnet Fest (January)
A celebration of the Stikine River and its abundant garnet deposits. Activities include gem and mineral shows, jewelry making, and lectures on local geology.
8. Eagle Festival (November 10th-12tg, 2023)
Celebrates the largest gathering of bald eagles in the world as they feast on late salmon runs. The festival includes photography workshops, nature walks, and cultural performances.
9. Blueberry Festival (August)
Celebrates the wild blueberry harvest with pie-eating contests, a fun run, and blueberry-themed art booths. A sweet treat for anyone visiting Ketchikan during this time.
10. Gold Rush Days (June)
A nod to Juneau’s gold mining history, this event features logging and mining competitions, a parade, and plenty of family-friendly activities. When planning a trip to Alaska, aligning your visit with one of these events can provide an enriching cultural experience. Each festival reflects a facet of Alaska’s heritage, be it the indigenous traditions, the gold rush era, or the state’s incredible natural phenomena.
Alaska, with its vast rivers, pristine lakes, and extensive coastline, offers unparalleled fishing opportunities. Its waters are home to a diverse range of fish species, attracting both novice and seasoned anglers from around the globe. Here’s an in-depth look at the state’s fishing riches:
1. Salmon Fishing
- Kenai River: Known for its King Salmon (Chinook). Some of the largest King Salmon ever caught have come from this river.
- Russian River: A tributary of the Kenai and is famous for Sockeye (Red) Salmon. It’s also a popular spot for “combat fishing,” where anglers stand elbow-to-elbow during peak season.
- Kodiak Island: Offers all five Pacific salmon species, making it an angler’s paradise.
- Copper River: Famous for its rich, flavorful Sockeye and King Salmon, which are sought-after delicacies.
2. Trout and Char Fishing
- Bristol Bay Area: Home to world-class Rainbow Trout fishing.
- Lake Iliamna: The largest lake in Alaska, offering massive Rainbow Trout and Dolly Varden Char.
- Kenai River: Apart from salmon, it’s also a hotspot for Rainbow Trout and Dolly Varden.
3. Northern Pike Fishing
- Minto Flats: North of Fairbanks, it’s one of the best Northern Pike fishing locations.
- Innoko National Wildlife Refuge: Remote and pristine, offering excellent pike fishing.
4. Halibut Fishing
- Homer: Known as the “Halibut Capital of the World.” Charter a boat and head into the deep sea for these flat, giant fish.
- Seward & Valdez: Both ports offer fantastic halibut fishing opportunities.
5. Ice Fishing
- Big Lake: Located north of Anchorage, it’s popular for ice fishing Rainbow Trout, Landlocked Salmon, and Arctic Char during winter.
- Interior Alaska: Areas around Fairbanks like Chena Lakes and Birch Lake provide excellent ice fishing for species like Pike and Burbot.
6. Arctic Fishing
- Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Remote and untouched, it offers fishing for species like Arctic Char and Grayling.
- Kobuk River: Located above the Arctic Circle, it’s renowned for Sheefish (or “Inconnu”), an aggressive and strong fish.
Tips for Fishing in Alaska:
- Licenses and Regulations: Ensure you have the appropriate fishing license and are familiar with local regulations, which can vary by region and season.
- Respect the Environment: Follow “Leave No Trace” principles. If practicing catch and release, handle the fish with care to ensure its survival.
- Safety First: The Alaskan wilderness can be challenging. Be bear-aware, wear life jackets when on the water, and always let someone know your itinerary.
- Hire a Guide: Especially if you’re new to the area or to the type of fishing you’re pursuing. Local guides can provide invaluable insights and increase your chances of success.
- Seasonality: Different fish run at different times of the year. Do your research or consult with local charters to optimize your fishing experience.
- Alaska Native Heritage Center (Anchorage): Provides an immersive introduction to native cultures. Guests can visit traditional dwellings, watch indigenous dances, and meet with craftsmen.
- Totem Poles: Found predominantly in Southeast Alaska in places like Ketchikan and Sitka. They narrate histories, legends, or cultural lessons.
- Gold Rush History: From Skagway’s historic boardwalk to Juneau’s mining artifacts, the gold rush’s legacy remains palpable.
- Whaling Festivals: In places like Barrow (Utqiaġvik), whaling festivals or “Nalukataq” celebrate the spring whaling season with feasts, music, and blanket tossing.
- Russian Influence: With Alaska once under Russian rule, remnants of this era can be found in places like Sitka, where you can visit the historic St. Michael’s Russian Orthodox Cathedral.
- Palmer’s Colony Days: Commemorates the establishment of the Matanuska Colony in the 1930s. Events include parades, games, and historical displays.
Art and Music Scene
- First Friday Art Walks (Anchorage & Fairbanks): On the first Friday of each month, galleries open their doors to showcase local artists.
- Alaska State Museum (Juneau): Offers a blend of art, history, and ethnography, showcasing works from both historical and contemporary Alaskan artists.
- Silver Hand Program: This Alaskan state program certifies authentic native artwork. When shopping, look for the “Silver Hand” emblem to ensure you’re buying genuine indigenous crafts.
- Anchorage Museum: Houses an impressive collection of contemporary and indigenous art. The museum often collaborates with local artists for special exhibitions.
- Public Art: From murals in Anchorage’s downtown to sculptures in Fairbanks, public art is abundant. It often reflects Alaska’s unique blend of cultures and its natural beauty.
- Alaska Folk Festival (Juneau): An annual gathering that has been showcasing folk and traditional music for over four decades.
- Anchorage Symphony Orchestra: Delivers high-quality orchestral performances, with both classical and modern repertoires.
- Salmonfest (Ninilchik): A three-day celebration of fish, love, and music. Apart from big-name bands, the festival highlights environmental and social issues.
- Athabascan Fiddle Festival (Fairbanks): A unique blend of native Athabascan traditions and Western fiddling introduced by the trappers and traders.
- Fairbanks Summer Arts Festival: A multi-disciplinary event offering workshops and performances in everything from music and dance to visual arts.
- Live Music Venues: Many local bars and restaurants, especially in Anchorage, Fairbanks, and Juneau, regularly host live music, showcasing both local talent and visiting bands.
Local Cuisine and Noteworthy Restaurants
Alaskan cuisine is an exploration of fresh, wild, and often unique flavors, making it a memorable part of any visit to The Last Frontier. Whether indulging in a gourmet meal with a mountain view or enjoying a simple reindeer sausage from a street vendor, Alaska promises a culinary journey like no other.
- Salmon: Whether grilled, smoked, cured, or made into salmon jerky, it’s a staple.
- Halibut: Often enjoyed grilled, fried, or in fish tacos.
- King Crab & Dungeness Crab: Known for their sweet, tender meat.
- Alaskan Oysters: Celebrated for their crisp, briny flavor.
- Moose, Caribou, and Venison: Often featured in stews, sausages, or steaks.
- Reindeer: Reindeer hot dogs are a must-try, especially from street vendors in Anchorage.
Berries: Blueberries, Raspberries, Salmonberries, and Cloudberries: Found in jams, jellies, syrups, pies, and even local ice creams.
- Muktuk: Whaleskin and blubber, traditionally eaten by the Inuit and other Arctic populations.
- Akwiyak (Fermented Fish Head): A Yupik delicacy.
- Seal & Walrus: Prepared in various ways among coastal communities.
- Birch Syrup: A sweeter, tangier alternative to maple syrup.
- Craft Beers: Alaska has a burgeoning craft beer scene with breweries producing unique ales using local ingredients.
- The Crow’s Nest (Anchorage): Located atop the Hotel Captain Cook, it offers panoramic views of the city and mountains, along with gourmet Alaskan cuisine.
- Tracy’s King Crab Shack (Juneau): Famous for its King Crab legs, bisque, and crab cakes. A favorite among both locals and tourists.
- Simon & Seafort’s (Anchorage): A classic, offering stunning views and an array of seafood dishes from halibut to salmon.
- The Pump House (Fairbanks): Housed in a historic building along the Chena River, it serves a variety of game meats and seafood in a rustic setting.
- The Rookery Cafe (Juneau): A cafe that punches above its weight, known for its innovative dishes and use of fresh, local ingredients.
- Talkeetna Roadhouse (Talkeetna): A historic establishment known for its hearty breakfasts, homemade pies, and its rustic charm.
- Orso (Anchorage): Elegant dining in the heart of Anchorage, known for its seafood dishes and innovative use of local ingredients.
- Seafood Markets: For a DIY experience, visit local seafood markets in cities like Anchorage, Juneau, and Kodiak to purchase the freshest catches and cook them up yourself.
- Seasonal Dining: Many Alaskan dishes and ingredients are seasonal. For the freshest crab, visit in the fall. For salmon, summer is prime time. Always ask locals for their recommendations!
- Pair with Local Brews: Alaskan breweries often craft beers that pair wonderfully with local dishes. Don’t hesitate to ask for beer recommendations when dining.
Best Outdoor Activities and Adventures in Alaska
When partaking in any of these activities, especially in Alaska’s unpredictable weather and wilderness settings, it’s paramount to prioritize safety. Ensure you’re well-prepared, informed, and, if possible, accompanied by a local guide or someone familiar with the area.
- Dog Sledding: Experience the thrill of mushing through snowy landscapes. Try this in areas like Fairbanks, Anchorage, and parts of the Iditarod Trail.
- Northern Lights Viewing: Head to Fairbanks in the winter months for one of the best places on earth to witness the Aurora Borealis.
- Ice Climbing: For the adventurous, the glaciers offer an icy vertical playground. Matanuska and Exit Glaciers are popular spots.
- Kayaking & Canoeing: Explore fjords, lakes, and coastal areas by paddling. Prince William Sound and Kenai Fjords are great starting points.
- Flightseeing: Take to the skies for a bird’s-eye view of Denali, glaciers, or even an active volcano.
- Snowmobiling: Known locally as “snow machining”, this is a thrilling way to explore Alaska’s winter landscapes.
- Wildlife Safaris: Head to Denali or the Kenai Peninsula to spot bears, moose, caribou, and eagles in their natural habitat.
- Fat Tire Biking: Bike over snow or rugged terrains with these specialized bikes.
The Best Hiking Trails in Alaska
- Mount Marathon (Seward): A challenging trek, but the panoramic views from the top are unparalleled.
- Harding Icefield Trail (Kenai Fjords National Park): This 8-mile round trip offers breathtaking views of the expansive icefield.
- Chilkoot Trail: A historic trail that retraces the steps of gold rush prospectors over a scenic 33 miles.
- Twin Peaks Trail (Eklutna Lake): A moderate 5-mile hike offering stunning lake and mountain views.
- Angel Rocks to Chena Hot Springs (near Fairbanks): A longer hike that rewards with scenic vistas and a soak in the hot springs at the end.
- Flattop Mountain (Anchorage): One of the most climbed mountains in Alaska due to its proximity to Anchorage and its spectacular views.
Water Sports Opportunities in Alaska
- Whitewater Rafting: Sixmile Creek and Nenana River offer thrilling rapids set amidst stunning landscapes.
- Sea Kayaking: Explore the fjords of Southeast Alaska, paddle alongside glaciers in Prince William Sound, or navigate the coastal wonders of Kenai Fjords National Park.
- Surfing: Yes, surfing! Head to Yakutat or Kodiak Island for some cold-water waves.
- Stand-Up Paddleboarding: Try this on the calmer waters of Alaska’s lakes, like Eklutna Lake or Byers Lake.
- Scuba Diving: Dive into the icy waters of Ketchikan or Kodiak Island to discover a rich underwater world, from kelp forests to shipwrecks.
- Fishing: While not exactly a “sport” for everyone, angling in Alaska’s rivers and coastal areas is world-renowned, targeting species like salmon, halibut, and trout.
Educational and Family Attractions in Alaska
Alaska offers a myriad of educational and family-friendly attractions.
Alaska Native Heritage Center (Anchorage): A cultural hub that showcases the rich heritage of Alaska’s 11 major cultural groups.
Attractions: Traditional dwellings, dance performances, art demonstrations, and interactive workshops.
Alaska SeaLife Center (Seward): A combination of a public aquarium and a marine research center.
Attractions: Encounter sea lions, puffins, octopuses, and more. Interactive exhibits showcase Alaska’s marine ecosystems.
University of Alaska Museum of the North (Fairbanks): A comprehensive look at Alaskan history, art, and natural science.
Attractions: Dinosaur fossils, indigenous art, aurora displays, and wildlife exhibits.
Alaska Raptor Center (Sitka): A rehabilitation center for injured eagles, hawks, and other birds of prey.
Attractions: Bird-watching, rehabilitation insights, and an outdoor trail through the rainforest.
Pioneer Park (Fairbanks): A historic village and theme park capturing the spirit of early Alaska.
Attractions: Gold rush town, Native Alaskan village, museums, and a narrow-gauge train.
Imaginarium Discovery Center (Anchorage): A science center aimed at stimulating young minds.
Attractions: Interactive exhibits, aquarium touch tanks, and planetarium shows
Trail of Blue Ice (Portage Valley): An easy, family-friendly trail amidst a scenic backdrop.
Attractions: Five miles of interconnected trails, viewing decks, and access to Portage Glacier.
Alaska Wildlife Conservation Center (Girdwood): A sanctuary for orphaned or injured animals.
Attractions: Close-up encounters with bears, moose, musk oxen, and more in a natural setting.
Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park (Skagway): Preserving the history of the 1898 Gold Rush.
Attractions: Historic buildings, interactive exhibits, Junior Ranger programs, and ranger-led tours.
Totem Heritage Center (Ketchikan): Celebrates the indigenous cultures of the Pacific Northwest.
Attractions: Totem poles, native art, and workshops.
- Seasonality: Some attractions, especially those outdoors, operate seasonally. Check in advance before planning your visit.
- Guided Tours: Consider opting for guided tours where available. Local guides enhance the experience by providing context, stories, and answering questions.
- Dress Appropriately: Alaska’s weather can be unpredictable. Dress in layers and carry rain gear, especially when venturing outdoors.
- Discounts: Look for family packages or group discounts, especially if you’re traveling with children or in a larger group.
Best Times to Visit Alaska
Spring (Late April to June)
Weather: Slowly warming from the cold winter. Snow remains at higher elevations but starts to melt in the lower areas.
- Wildlife Watching: As animals emerge from hibernation, this is an excellent time for wildlife enthusiasts. Bears, especially, start becoming active.
- Bird Migration: Millions of birds migrate to Alaska, making it a paradise for birdwatchers.
- Scenic Views: Snow-capped mountains contrast with green budding trees, making the landscape picture-perfect.
Considerations: Some tourist facilities and accommodations may not be open until late spring or early summer.
Summer (Late June to August)
Weather: The warmest and longest days, especially in June with the midnight sun phenomenon.
- Fishing: Prime time for salmon fishing.
- Hiking & Camping: Trails are clear, and national parks are fully accessible.
- Festivals: Many towns host summer solstice festivals and local celebrations.
- Wildlife: It’s a great time for whale watching along the coast.
Considerations: This is the peak tourist season. Popular spots might be crowded, and accommodations may require advance booking.
Fall (September to October):
Weather: Cooling rapidly with shorter days. The first snowfall can occur in late October.
- Northern Lights: As the nights get longer, chances of seeing the Aurora Borealis increase.
- Fall Foliage: Trees turn shades of gold and crimson, especially beautiful in areas like Denali.
- Moose Rutting: An exciting time for wildlife watchers as male moose compete for mates.
Considerations: Some tourist facilities begin to close for the winter, especially towards late October.
Winter (November to early April)
Weather: Cold and dark with short days. Northern regions can be extremely cold.
- Winter Sports: Skiing, snowboarding, ice-skating, dog sledding, and snowmobiling become popular activities.
- Iditarod Dog Sled Race: Held in March, this is one of Alaska’s most famous events.
- Northern Lights: The dark winter nights offer the best chance to witness this natural wonder.
Considerations: Not all areas are accessible due to snow. Tourist facilities in many areas are closed or have limited operations. However, winter tourism is growing, especially in areas like Fairbanks.
Alaska’s vast landscapes, rugged terrains, and varied conditions mean that travel logistics and transportation safety are of utmost importance.
Arrival in Alaska
- By Air: Anchorage’s Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport and Fairbanks International Airport are the major gateways. Many visitors also enter via Juneau or Ketchikan, especially if arriving by cruise.
- By Sea: Several cruise lines run routes along the Inside Passage, with stops in ports like Skagway, Juneau, and Ketchikan. The Alaska Marine Highway System also offers ferry services for passengers and vehicles.
- By Road: The Alaska Highway runs from Dawson Creek in British Columbia through Yukon to Delta Junction, Alaska. It’s a favored route for road trippers.
- Car Rentals: An option for those wanting flexibility. But remember that many parts of Alaska are remote, so always check road conditions and have a travel plan.
- Train: The Alaska Railroad offers scenic routes from Seward to Fairbanks, passing through Anchorage, Denali, and more.
- Buses: Limited, but some operators offer services to popular tourist spots.
- Planes: Bush planes and regional flights are sometimes the only way to reach certain remote areas.
- Wildlife: Animals might appear suddenly on roads. Always be alert, especially during dawn and dusk.
- Weather: Weather can change rapidly. Check forecasts, and be prepared for rain, snow, or fog. In winter, icy conditions can be challenging.
- Remote Areas: Many areas lack cell reception. It’s wise to inform someone about your travel plans and expected return time. Carry extra food, water, and a first-aid kit.
- Road Conditions: Some roads can be gravel or dirt, requiring slower speeds and extra caution.
- Weather Delays: Given Alaska’s varied climate, expect potential weather-related delays or cancellations.
- Weight Restrictions: Bush planes often have strict weight restrictions for luggage due to their small size.
Accommodation Options. Best hotels in Alaska
Alaska boasts a wide array of accommodation options, from luxury hotels in cities to remote wilderness lodges
Accommodation Options in Alaska:
- Bed & Breakfasts: Scattered throughout the state, they provide a homely feel and often come with the added benefit of local insights from hosts.
- Wilderness Lodges: These are often situated in remote locations, offering a deep connection to nature, wildlife-viewing opportunities, and a sense of solitude.
- Cabin Rentals: Ideal for those wanting a rustic experience or more privacy.
- Campgrounds: Numerous campgrounds, both private and within national parks, cater to tents and RVs.
Noteworthy Hotels and Lodges:
- The Hotel Alyeska (Girdwood). Located in the ski resort town of Girdwood, it’s renowned for its luxurious amenities and proximity to outdoor adventures.
- Westmark Fairbanks Hotel and Conference Center (Fairbanks). A top choice for business travelers and tourists alike due to its comfort and central location.
- Captain Cook Hotel (Anchorage). Overlooking Cook Inlet, this upscale hotel offers multiple dining options, comfortable rooms, and an athletic club.
- Pike’s Waterfront Lodge (Fairbanks). Located along the Chena River, it offers a cozy stay with a rustic touch.
- Kantishna Roadhouse (Denali National Park). A premier backcountry lodge located deep inside Denali National Park, offering an immersive wilderness experience.
- Kenai Princess Wilderness Lodge (Cooper Landing). Overlooking the Kenai River, it offers beautiful vistas, comfortable bungalows, and close proximity to fishing adventures.
- Waterfall Resort Alaska (Ketchikan). A historic fishing resort that provides all-inclusive fishing packages and a genuine Alaskan experience.
- Sheldon Chalet (Denali National Park). An ultra-luxurious experience, this remote lodge offers stunning views of Denali and a unique alpine adventure.
- Tutka Bay Lodge (Kachemak Bay State Park). Nestled between a rugged coastline and a lush old-growth forest, this lodge offers luxury amidst wilderness.
- Brooks Lodge (Katmai National Park). Primarily known for its bear viewing opportunities, it’s a wilderness lover’s dream.
Essential Tips for Travelers
- Dress in Layers: Alaskan weather can be unpredictable. It’s wise to dress in layers so you can add or remove clothing as needed.
- Wildlife Safety: Respect the wildlife. Keep a safe distance, never feed animals, and store food securely to avoid attracting them.
- Stay Connected: While Alaska boasts vast wilderness areas, it’s essential to have a communication plan. Satellite phones can be handy in remote areas.
- Understand the Midnight Sun: Northern parts of Alaska experience long days in summer. Bring an eye mask for sleeping, and remember, just because it’s bright outside doesn’t mean businesses are open.
- Travel Insurance: Given the unique conditions and activities in Alaska, it’s prudent to invest in comprehensive travel insurance.
- Local Etiquette: Respect the local communities, especially indigenous populations. Take time to learn about their culture and traditions.
- Plan Ahead: Popular activities and accommodations can get booked quickly, especially during peak season. Plan in advance to avoid disappointment.
Tips for Budget Travelers
- Travel Off-Peak: Visiting during shoulder seasons (spring and early fall) can mean discounted rates on accommodations and fewer tourists.
- Camp: Alaska has numerous beautiful campgrounds. Consider camping or renting an RV to save on accommodation costs.
- Use Public Transport: Instead of flights or rentals, use the Alaska Marine Highway System (ferries) or the Alaska Railroad for scenic, cost-effective transport.
- Self-Cater: Eating out can add up. Shop at local markets or grocery stores and prepare your meals. Many hostels offer kitchen facilities.
- Seek Out Free Activities: Hiking, wildlife spotting, or even just enjoying the landscapes doesn’t cost a thing. Research free local events or festivals.
- Student & Military Discounts: Some attractions offer discounts for students or military personnel. Always inquire and have valid ID handy.
- Package Deals: Some tour operators offer package deals that combine activities, reducing the overall cost.
- Hostel Stays: Hostels in Alaska offer budget-friendly accommodation and a chance to meet fellow travelers.
- Book in Groups: If you’re open to it, group bookings for tours or activities can sometimes be more economical.
- Local Deals: Check local websites or flyers for deals and discounts on activities, dining, or tours.
Remember, traveling on a budget doesn’t mean skimping on experiences. With a little planning and flexibility, Alaska offers rich experiences for travelers of all budgets.
Shopping in Alaska offers a unique experience, as you’ll encounter local art, indigenous crafts, and items that capture the state’s wild essence.
Support Local Artisans and instead of buying generic souvenirs, seek out local artisans and craftsmen. Their work often tells a story and provides authenticity to your purchase. Don’t forget to check it. If you’re interested in buying indigenous art or crafts, ensure they are authentic and not factory-produced replicas. Look for the “Silver Hand” seal which indicates genuine Alaska Native art.
Some items, especially organic ones (like food products), might have specific packaging or transportation requirements. Ensure they are packed correctly to avoid any hassles while traveling. If you find something you love but it’s too large to carry, inquire about shipping options. Many stores offer shipping services, especially for bulky or fragile items.
While bargaining isn’t a common practice in most established stores, it’s okay to ask for a deal or discount, especially if you’re buying multiple items.
During tourist season, some pop-up markets and fairs showcase local artisans. Keep an eye out for these.
Souvenirs to Bring Home from Alaska
- Ulu Knife: An indigenous invention, the Ulu knife is versatile and unique to Alaska. They come in various sizes and designs.
- Alaskan Jade: Known as the state gem, you can find jade in various forms, from jewelry to decorative items.
- Salmon & Seafood Products: Canned smoked salmon, salmon jerky, or other seafood specialties make tasty reminders of your trip.
- Birch Syrup: Unlike its more famous maple counterpart, birch syrup has a distinctive taste and is an Alaskan delicacy.
- Alaskan Blueberry Products: From jams to teas, Alaskan wild blueberries are a treat.
- Qiviut Items: Qiviut, the underwool of the musk ox, is warmer than sheep’s wool and softer than cashmere. Scarves, hats, or mittens made of qiviut are luxurious gifts.
- Totem Poles: Miniature totem poles make for great decorative pieces and are rich in symbolism.
- Local Art: This can range from paintings capturing Alaska’s landscapes to indigenous beadwork and crafts.
- Gold Nugget Jewelry: Paying homage to Alaska’s Gold Rush history, gold nugget jewelry is both beautiful and meaningful.
- Russian Matryoshka Dolls: Reflecting the Russian influence in Alaskan history, these nesting dolls are popular souvenirs.
Health and Accessibility Information
Medical Facilities: While major cities have hospitals and clinics, remote areas may lack immediate medical care. Ensure you have a well-stocked first-aid kit and necessary medications.
Accessibility: Major tourist areas and hotels in cities cater to those with disabilities. However, some activities in rugged terrains may pose challenges. Always check in advance.
Resources and References
- Alaska Travel Industry Association: Offers comprehensive travel planning resources, including brochures and maps.
- National Park Service: Provides detailed information on national parks, preserves, and historic sites in Alaska.
- Local Visitor Bureaus: Towns like Fairbanks, Anchorage, and Juneau have visitor centers with knowledgeable staff, local maps, and event calendars.