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Home » United Arab Emirates: From Desert Sands to Cityscapes – A Travel Guide

United Arab Emirates: From Desert Sands to Cityscapes – A Travel Guide

The United Arab Emirates is a captivating blend of historical depth and groundbreaking modernity. As you journey through its emirates, you’re treated to ancient Bedouin traditions juxtaposed against architectural marvels that defy the imagination. From the vast, serene deserts with their timeless allure to the bustling marketplaces and majestic skyscrapers of cities like Dubai and Abu Dhabi, the UAE promises a diverse travel experience. Whether you’re seeking cultural immersion, luxury shopping, desert adventures, or innovative culinary delights, the UAE seamlessly melds its rich heritage with a pioneering spirit, making it a truly unique travel destination.

Introduction to the UAE

Brief History of the UAE

The United Arab Emirates, often simply called the UAE, is a federation of seven emirates established in 1971. While its recorded history dates back thousands of years, it’s the last century that has seen the most significant transformations. Before the discovery of oil, the region was primarily focused on pearl diving, fishing, and trade. The oil boom in the 20th century propelled the UAE into rapid modernization, transforming it from a cluster of small desert principalities to a global hub of commerce, tourism, and innovation.

Geography and Climate

Situated on the southeastern tip of the Arabian Peninsula, the UAE boasts a diverse landscape. The vast deserts, such as the Rub’ al Khali or the Empty Quarter, paint vast stretches of the country with their golden sands and dunes. Along the coast, pristine beaches grace the shores, offering breathtaking views of the Persian Gulf. The Hajar Mountains run through the eastern part of the country, providing a stark contrast to the desert plains. The UAE’s climate is generally characterized as subtropical-arid with hot summers and warm winters. Rainfall is infrequent, and the country enjoys plenty of sunshine year-round, making it an ideal winter getaway for sun-seekers.

Top Destinations in the UAE

Dazzling Dubai

Dubai, the largest city in the UAE, stands as a testament to what human ambition can achieve. Its skyline is punctuated with architectural wonders such as the Burj Khalifa, the world’s tallest building. The city is also home to the luxurious Dubai Mall, Palm Jumeirah—an artificial island—and a myriad of cultural venues like the Dubai Opera. Whether you’re there to shop at the world’s largest shopping center, revel in its vibrant nightlife, or explore its historic districts, Dubai offers something for every traveler.

Abu Dhabi: The Cultural Heartbeat

As the capital of the UAE, Abu Dhabi is where the traditional and the modern coalesce. The majestic Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque, with its 82 domes and thousands of intricate inlays, invites visitors from all over the world. On the other end of the spectrum, the Louvre Abu Dhabi, designed by the famed architect Jean Nouvel, offers a bridge between Eastern and Western art. Yas Island, with its Formula 1 circuit and Warner Bros. World, provides entertainment for all ages.

Sharjah: The Arts Capital

Dubbed the “Cultural Capital of the Arab World” by UNESCO in 1998, Sharjah brims with museums, galleries, and heritage areas. The Sharjah Art Museum houses one of the largest collections of artwork in the Gulf region, and Al Noor Island combines art, nature, and architecture in an interactive space. The city’s commitment to preserving its history and promoting the arts makes it a must-visit.

Ras Al Khaimah: Nature’s Gem

Less bustling than its counterparts, Ras Al Khaimah is the place for those seeking natural beauty and outdoor adventures. The Jebel Jais Mountain offers trekking, a via ferrata, and the world’s longest zipline. For a more leisurely experience, the pristine beaches or the mineral-rich hot springs at Khatt are perfect for relaxation.

Fujairah: The Coastal Delight

Fujairah stands unique with its stunning coastline along the Gulf of Oman. Its historic forts, such as the Al Bithnah Fort, tell tales of bygone eras. Snorkeling and diving enthusiasts will find the marine life-rich coral reefs off the coast a paradise. The Friday Market, despite its name, is open seven days a week and is the go-to place for local crafts and produce.

Cultural Insights

Emirati Traditions and Etiquette

The heart of the UAE beats in its rich traditions and cultural practices that have been passed down through generations. From the intricate steps of the Al Ayala dance to the soulful notes of traditional Bedouin music, every aspect tells a story of the desert and its people. Respect and hospitality are fundamental values here. When visiting an Emirati home, it’s customary to be offered dates and Arabic coffee—a symbol of welcome. While the country is modern, traditional dress such as the ‘kandura’ for men and ‘abaya’ for women remain popular and are worn with pride.

Celebrations and Festivals

The UAE’s calendar is replete with celebrations that offer a glimpse into its soul. Ramadan, the holy month of fasting, sees Emiratis come together in prayer and reflection, culminating in the joyous celebration of Eid al-Fitr. The National Day on December 2nd commemorates the union of the emirates and is marked by parades, fireworks, and displays of national pride. The Al Dhafra Festival, a showcase of Bedouin lifestyle, includes camel races, traditional dances, and handicraft markets.

Emirati Cuisine: A Gastronomic Journey

At the crossroads of various trade routes, Emirati cuisine is a delicious blend of Middle Eastern and Asian flavors. The traditional dish ‘Al Harees’, made with just wheat, meat, and salt, is a testament to the desert’s simplicity. Rich stews like ‘Al Majboos’ and ‘Al Madrooba’ are staples at any Emirati dining table. Sweets such as ‘Luqaimat’, fried dough balls drizzled with date syrup, or ‘Khabees’, a dessert made with toasted flour and spices, perfectly encapsulate the region’s love for robust flavors. Every meal becomes a journey through the nation’s history, landscape, and its people’s ingenuity.

Activities and Adventures

Skyscraper Views in Dubai

Dubai isn’t just about shopping and luxury; it’s also an adventure playground. Take the elevator ride up to the observation deck of the Burj Khalifa for a bird’s-eye view of the city. For the thrill-seekers, skydiving over the Palm Jumeirah offers an adrenaline rush like no other, providing both the thrill of the jump and unparalleled views of the city’s iconic landmarks.

Desert Safari Experience

The vast deserts of the UAE are not just barren landscapes but adventure hubs. Go dune bashing in a 4×4 vehicle, try sandboarding down the dunes, or take a camel ride to experience the desert the way the Bedouins have for centuries. As the sun sets, settle down at a desert camp to enjoy traditional dance performances and a sumptuous BBQ under the stars.

Diving in Fujairah

The emirate of Fujairah offers some of the best diving spots in the UAE. Dive into the azure waters of the Gulf of Oman to explore vibrant coral reefs, shipwrecks, and a diverse marine life. Whether you’re a beginner or an experienced diver, the underwater world here will leave you mesmerized.

Climbing Jebel Jais

Ras Al Khaimah’s Jebel Jais, the highest peak in the UAE, provides adventure enthusiasts with a range of activities. From challenging hiking trails that offer panoramic views to the Jebel Jais Flight – the world’s longest zipline, there’s something for everyone. The cooler temperatures at the mountain’s summit make it an ideal escape during the hotter months.

Cultural Walks in Al Fahidi Historical Neighborhood

Dubai’s Al Fahidi Historical Neighborhood transports visitors back in time. Wander through its narrow lanes to discover the mud-brick architecture of the past, art galleries, museums, and quaint cafes. It’s a serene experience and a stark contrast to the city’s modern skyline, offering insights into the UAE’s rich history and heritage.

Island Hopping in Abu Dhabi

The capital emirate is dotted with numerous islands, each offering its unique experiences. Visit Sir Bani Yas Island for its wildlife reserve, Yas Island for its entertainment hubs, or Saadiyat Island for its beautiful beaches and cultural sites. Whether you’re seeking relaxation, wildlife encounters, or recreational activities, these islands have it all.

Traveling within the UAE

Efficient Public Transport

Dubai’s metro system, a feat of modern engineering, offers a convenient and efficient way to navigate the bustling city. With stations strategically located near major attractions and thoroughfares, it’s an ideal mode of transport for visitors. In addition to the metro, cities like Dubai and Abu Dhabi also have an extensive bus network, making it easy for travelers to move around without the need for a car.

Taxis and Ride-Sharing

Taxis are readily available across all emirates and are a popular choice for short-distance travel. They’re metered, ensuring transparency in fare. For those accustomed to app-based ride-sharing, platforms like Uber and Careem operate extensively in the major cities, offering another convenient mode of transport.

Car Rentals for Exploration

For travelers keen on exploring the UAE at their own pace, renting a car is a viable option. With well-maintained roads, clear signages in both Arabic and English, and a plethora of car rental agencies, driving around the UAE can be a joy. Whether you’re cruising the coastal roads of Fujairah or heading into the desert for an adventure, a personal vehicle offers flexibility.

Traditional Modes: Abra and Camels

While modern transport reigns supreme, there’s a charm in experiencing the UAE’s traditional modes of transport. In Dubai, wooden boats known as ‘abras’ ferry people across the Dubai Creek, offering a slice of the city’s history. For a desert experience, camel treks are a must-try. Not only do they provide a unique vantage point to view the landscape, but they also connect travelers to the region’s Bedouin roots.

Domestic Flights

The UAE, though geographically compact, has several domestic airports. Airlines like Etihad and FlyDubai offer short flights connecting the major emirates. These come in handy for travelers short on time or those wanting to quickly transition from the urban landscapes of Dubai to the natural beauty of Ras Al Khaimah or Fujairah.

Safety and Road Etiquette

The UAE prides itself on being one of the safest countries for travelers. However, when on the road, it’s essential to be aware of the local driving etiquette. Speed limits are strictly enforced, and seat belts are mandatory. Roundabouts and merging lanes can get busy, so staying attentive and following road signs is crucial for a smooth journey.

Essential Travel Tips

Best Time to Visit

The UAE experiences a desert climate, which means summers (June to September) can be scorching with temperatures often surpassing 40°C (104°F). The best time to visit is during the cooler months between October and April when the weather is pleasant, making outdoor activities and sightseeing more enjoyable.

Dress Code

Respect for local customs is paramount. While the UAE is progressive, it’s advisable to dress modestly, especially when visiting religious or traditional places. Women should consider wearing dresses or skirts that are knee-length or longer and tops that cover the shoulders. Men should avoid sleeveless shirts in such places. Beachwear is restricted to pools and beaches.

Visa and Entry Requirements

The UAE’s visa requirements vary based on nationality, the purpose of the visit, and its duration. Here’s a brief overview:

Visa on Arrival

Citizens from several countries, including most European Union nations, the US, Canada, Australia, and many Asian countries, can obtain a visa on arrival, valid for 30 to 90 days. The exact duration depends on the specific agreement between the UAE and the traveler’s home country.


For those not eligible for visa-on-arrival, the UAE offers an online e-Visa application system. Travelers can apply in advance, submit necessary documentation, and receive their visa electronically.

Tourist, Transit, and Long-Visit Visas

For tourists not covered by the above options, travel agencies, hotels, and airline companies can sponsor a tourist or transit visa, which typically lasts 30 days but can be extended. There’s also a long-visit visa option for those wishing to stay longer.

GCC Residents

Residents of Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries don’t need a visa to enter the UAE. However, the profession listed on their residence card may be a determining factor.

Overstay and Penalties

It’s crucial to adhere to visa durations, as overstaying can result in penalties. The exact fee varies, but it’s always best to ensure that you depart the UAE or renew your visa as required.

Passport Validity

Travelers must have a passport valid for at least six months from the date of entry. This requirement is standard for most countries.

Recent Travel Restrictions

Given the changing global scenario with factors like the COVID-19 pandemic, there may be additional entry requirements or restrictions. It’s always a good idea to check the UAE’s official immigration website or consult your local UAE embassy before planning your trip.

Language and Communication

Arabic is the official language, but English is widely spoken, especially in business and tourist areas. Signs are typically bilingual in Arabic and English. Picking up a few basic Arabic phrases can be helpful and is often appreciated by locals.

Currency and Payments

The official currency is the UAE dirham (AED). Credit and debit cards are widely accepted, but it’s a good idea to carry some cash, especially when visiting local markets or remote areas. ATMs are abundant, and money exchange houses offer competitive rates.

UAE dirham current exchange rates

  • 100 AED = $27.23 or $1 = 3.67 UAE dirham
  • 100 AED = €25.43 or €1 = 3.93 UAE dirham

Other currencies:

  • 100 AED = 21.51 British Pounds
  • 100 AED = 40.90 Australian Dollar
  • 100 AED = 37.27 Canadian Dollar
  • 100 AED = 285.88 Swedish Krona
  • 100 AED = 110.04 Polish Zloty
  • 100 AED = 633.30 Czech Koruna
  • 100 AED = 37,850.64 South Korean Won
  • 100 AED = 197.67 Chinese Yuan
  • 100 AED = 4,326.53 Japanese Yen


The UAE boasts a robust digital infrastructure. Free Wi-Fi is available in many public areas, including malls, restaurants, and metro stations. For longer stays, consider purchasing a local SIM card from providers like Etisalat or du for better rates and faster mobile internet.

Cultural Respect

During the holy month of Ramadan, Muslims fast from dawn until sunset. During this time, eating, drinking, or smoking in public during daylight hours is prohibited. Even if you’re not fasting, it’s essential to show respect by refraining from these activities in public spaces.


Tipping is not mandatory, but it’s a common practice to round up taxi fares or leave a 10-15% tip in restaurants, especially if service charge isn’t included.

Stay Hydrated

Given the desert climate and high temperatures, it’s crucial to drink plenty of water throughout the day to stay hydrated. Always carry a water bottle, especially if you’re venturing outdoors.

Local Apps

Consider downloading local apps like RTA Dubai for public transportation, The Entertainer for dining and entertainment deals, and SmartDrive for GPS navigation tailored to UAE roads.

Emergency Numbers

In case of emergencies, dial 999 for the police, 998 for an ambulance, and 997 for the fire department. It’s always a good idea to have these numbers saved or written down.

Accommodation Guide

The United Arab Emirates, being a global tourist hotspot, offers a diverse range of accommodation options catering to all preferences and budgets. Here’s a comprehensive look into what travelers can expect:

Luxury Resorts and Hotels

The UAE is home to some of the world’s most luxurious hotels and resorts. From the iconic Burj Al Arab in Dubai to the palatial Emirates Palace in Abu Dhabi, these establishments offer unparalleled opulence, world-class amenities, and impeccable service. Staying here is an experience in itself, with personalized butler services, extravagant suites, and gourmet dining options.

Mid-Range Hotels

For those seeking comfort without the luxury price tag, the UAE has a plethora of mid-range hotels. Chains like Novotel, Radisson Blu, and Hilton Garden Inn have properties across the emirates, providing comfortable rooms, modern amenities, and reliable service.

Budget and Boutique Hotels

Budget travelers need not compromise on comfort. Several budget and boutique hotels, especially in older parts of cities like Dubai and Sharjah, offer clean rooms, essential amenities, and a local charm. These establishments are perfect for travelers looking for an authentic, no-frills experience.

Short-Term Rentals

Platforms like Airbnb and have made it easy for visitors to book apartments, villas, or individual rooms in local residences. These options are great for families, groups, or those planning an extended stay. Staying in residential neighborhoods also provides a more immersive experience of daily life in the UAE.

Traditional Accommodations

For a unique experience, consider staying in a desert resort or a traditional Bedouin-style camp. These places offer a taste of the UAE’s rich history and culture, allowing travelers to experience desert life with modern comforts.

Location Matters

Choosing the right location is crucial. For business travelers, staying in the business districts might be preferable. Those looking to shop and explore might consider staying downtown or near popular tourist hubs. Meanwhile, beach lovers have several coastal resorts to choose from.

Booking in Advance

Given the UAE’s popularity as a tourist destination, it’s wise to book accommodations in advance, especially during peak tourist seasons and major events or exhibitions.

Local Regulations

It’s important to be aware of local regulations, especially for unmarried couples. While many hotels in the more cosmopolitan cities like Dubai and Abu Dhabi have a more relaxed approach, it’s always best to check in advance to avoid any inconveniences.

Check-In Requirements

Generally, hotels require guests to present a passport or Emirates ID during check-in. Some establishments may also place a temporary hold on a credit card as a security deposit. Always inquire about such details while making a reservation.

Useful Websites

  • Visit Dubai – Official tourism website of Dubai, packed with information on attractions, events, and itineraries.
  • Visit Abu Dhabi – Abu Dhabi’s official visitor website with guides on cultural landmarks, adventure spots, and dining options.
  • UAE’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation – Essential for visa and diplomatic information, including up-to-date travel advisories.
  • Time Out Dubai – A comprehensive guide to the city’s restaurants, nightlife, films, things to do, and more.
  • Dubai Metro – Offers information on metro lines, stations, timings, and fares for Dubai’s public transportation.
  • Entertainer – A popular UAE platform offering 2-for-1 deals on dining, attractions, and wellness.
  • Bayut – Useful for travelers seeking short-term apartment or villa rentals in various emirates.
  • TripAdvisor UAE – Traveler reviews on UAE hotels, attractions, and restaurants.
  • UAE Interact – Provides a wealth of information about the UAE’s history, culture, and developments.
  • Etihad Rail – For updates on the UAE’s national railway network, which upon completion, will connect major cities and industrial areas.

The United Arab Emirates is a captivating blend of tradition and modernity, where shimmering skyscrapers coexist with historical mosques and bustling souks. Its diverse landscape offers both the tranquility of vast deserts and the vibrancy of cosmopolitan cities. From the architectural wonders of Dubai and the cultural richness of Abu Dhabi to the serene beaches of Fujairah and the rugged beauty of Ras Al Khaimah, the UAE promises an enriching experience for every traveler. Whether you’re drawn by its world-class events, gastronomic delights, or the allure of its cultural heritage, the UAE is a destination that never ceases to amaze. Safe travels as you embark on a journey of discovery in this Middle Eastern gem.

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