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Home » Mauritania: Your Ultimate Travel Guide to Adventure in West Africa

Mauritania: Your Ultimate Travel Guide to Adventure in West Africa

Are you yearning for an adventure that strays off the beaten path? Look no further than Mauritania, a hidden gem nestled in the vast landscapes of West Africa. While it’s true that Mauritania may not yet be on every traveler’s radar, this unique nation offers an array of unforgettable experiences—from the wind-sculpted dunes of the Sahara to its untouched coastal beauty.

Geography and Climate

Desert Landscapes

Mauritania is largely covered by the Sahara Desert, offering some of the most stunning desert landscapes in the world. The endless sea of golden dunes is occasionally interrupted by rocky plateaus and ancient craters. The desert is not just a barren wasteland; it’s a living ecosystem, home to a variety of flora and fauna adapted to extreme conditions. From the dunes of the Adrar to the mysterious Richat Structure, also known as the “Eye of the Sahara,” the desert landscapes are a must-see when you’re in Mauritania.

Coastal Regions

While the desert dominates much of the country, Mauritania is also home to an extensive coastline along the Atlantic Ocean. The coastal area, including the Banc d’Arguin National Park, is a haven for birdwatchers and nature enthusiasts. The region is rich in marine life, making it an important fishing ground and offering opportunities for water-based activities like kayaking and sailing.

Best Time to Visit

The climate in Mauritania can be challenging, with extreme heat prevalent for much of the year. The best time to visit is from November to March when the temperatures are relatively cooler, ranging from 20 to 25 degrees Celsius (68-77 degrees Fahrenheit). This period is also less windy, making outdoor activities and desert exploration more enjoyable. However, if you’re interested in witnessing the spectacle of bird migration, the hot summer months are when the coastal regions come alive with diverse avian species.

Best Time to Visit Mauritania in 2024 for Cultural Tours, Desert Exploration, and Birdwatching. Mauritania Weather Guide

In this section, we’ve explored the varied geography and climate of Mauritania, laying the groundwork for what you can expect on your journey. Whether you’re trekking through the Saharan dunes or enjoying the coastal breezes, understanding the lay of the land is crucial for making the most of your trip.

Culture and History

Ethnic Groups

Mauritania is a melting pot of diverse ethnic groups, each contributing to the country’s rich cultural tapestry. The population is primarily divided among Moors, who are of Arab-Berber descent, and black Africans that include ethnic groups like the Wolof, Pular, and Soninke. This diversity is reflected in everything from the music and dance to clothing and traditions, making Mauritania a fascinating destination for cultural enthusiasts.


In a country as ethnically diverse as Mauritania, it’s not surprising that multiple languages are spoken. Arabic is the official language and is widely used in government and media. However, French is also prevalent, especially in educational settings and larger cities. Additionally, indigenous languages like Pular, Wolof, and Soninke are spoken by different communities. The multilingual nature of the country adds an extra layer of richness to the cultural experience you’ll encounter.

Historical Landmarks

Mauritania’s history is as expansive as its desert, with roots tracing back to ancient civilizations. The old cities of Ouadane, Chinguetti, Tichitt, and Oualata, collectively recognized as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, bear testimony to its historic importance as centers of Islamic culture and trade. From ancient rock art in the Adrar Plateau to the colonial architecture in Nouakchott, the historical landmarks of Mauritania offer a time-traveling experience for those interested in history.

Must-Visit Places


As the capital and largest city of Mauritania, Nouakchott serves as the political and economic hub of the country. However, it’s more than just a bustling metropolis. The city offers a unique blend of traditional Mauritanian culture and modernity. Highlights include the bustling markets like Marché Capitale, the impressive Mosque Saudique, and the Port de Pêche, where you can observe local fishermen bringing in the day’s catch.

Adrar Plateau

For those who love rugged landscapes, the Adrar Plateau is an absolute must-visit. Located in central Mauritania, this region features dramatic cliffs, deep canyons, and stunning sand dunes. It’s also home to ancient petroglyphs and the historic town of Chinguetti, considered the seventh holiest city in Islam. A trip to the Adrar Plateau offers an adventure into the heart of Mauritania’s natural beauty and ancient history.

Banc d’Arguin National Park

A paradise for birdwatchers and nature enthusiasts, Banc d’Arguin National Park is situated along the Atlantic coast. This UNESCO World Heritage Site is one of the most important zones in the world for nesting birds, including both migratory species from Europe and indigenous African birds. Apart from the avian attractions, the park is also home to various marine species like dolphins and seals, making it a holistic nature experience.

Terjit Oasis

If you’re looking to find an Eden in the midst of the arid landscapes, Terjit Oasis is the place to be. Nestled among cliffs and palm trees, this oasis offers a refreshing respite from the harsh desert environment. The natural springs feed into pools where visitors can take a relaxing dip. The oasis is also a starting point for camel treks and offers basic accommodations for those looking to stay overnight.

Richat Structure

Also known as the “Eye of the Sahara,” the Richat Structure is a geological wonder that has captured the imaginations of scientists and travelers alike. This naturally occurring circular feature can even be seen from space and is a must-visit for anyone interested in geology or natural wonders. It’s particularly captivating at sunrise or sunset when the changing light casts dramatic shadows across the formation.


Located in southeastern Mauritania, Néma is a fascinating destination especially for those interested in experiencing a town that bridges the Arab north and the Sub-Saharan south. The market in Néma is an eclectic blend of goods from both regions, making it an interesting spot for those keen on shopping for local wares. It’s a great place to witness the blend of cultures that define Mauritania.

Activities and Experiences

Desert Safaris

One of the most thrilling ways to explore the Mauritanian Sahara is through a desert safari. Whether you’re on a 4×4 vehicle or a camel, a desert safari allows you to traverse the shifting sands, visit nomadic settlements, and take in the breathtaking landscapes. Don’t miss out on the chance to camp under the stars, where the absence of light pollution offers an unparalleled view of the night sky.

Bird Watching

With a variety of habitats ranging from desert to coastal areas, Mauritania is a bird-watcher’s paradise. The Banc d’Arguin National Park alone is a significant site for migratory and indigenous birds. Flamingos, pelicans, and sandpipers are some of the species you’re likely to spot. Even if you’re not an avid bird-watcher, the experience is a serene way to connect with nature.

Cultural Festivals

The rich cultural tapestry of Mauritania is best experienced through its festivals. From the traditional camel races of the nomadic Moors to music festivals that showcase the country’s diverse ethnic music, these events offer a glimpse into the soul of Mauritania. Festivals are a lively and colorful affair, complete with traditional dance, music, and lots of local cuisine. Don’t miss the chance to partake in these celebrations if you’re visiting at the right time.

By engaging in these activities and experiences, you’ll get to see Mauritania from unique angles. Whether it’s the adrenaline rush of a desert safari, the peaceful observation of rare bird species, or the lively atmosphere of a cultural festival, Mauritania offers an array of activities that are as diverse as the country itself.

Local Cuisine

Mauritanian Tea

Tea is more than just a drink in Mauritania; it’s a social ritual. Often prepared in small teapots and served in three rounds, each with its own flavor profile, Mauritanian tea is a must-try. The process is just as enjoyable as the tea itself, offering a moment to socialize and relax.

Fish Dishes

Given its extensive coastline, it’s no surprise that fish is a staple in Mauritanian cuisine. Whether grilled, fried, or used in stews, the variety of fish dishes available is a testament to the country’s rich marine resources. One popular dish to try is “Thieboudienne,” a flavorful rice and fish combination often enhanced with various vegetables and spices.

Meat and Grains

Mauritania’s nomadic culture is reflected in its cuisine, particularly in the emphasis on meat and grains. Lamb and goat meat are popular, often prepared as kebabs or included in rich stews. Grains like millet and rice serve as the base for most meals, sometimes accompanied by sauces made from groundnuts or baobab fruit.

Street Food

For the adventurous eater, Mauritania’s street food offers a quick and delicious introduction to local flavors. Don’t miss out on “Mahfe,” a peanut stew often served over rice, or “Boulettes,” fried balls of fish or meat that are perfect for snacking.

Tasting the local cuisine is an essential part of any travel experience, and in Mauritania, the diverse food options add another layer to your understanding of this unique country. From the complex ritual of tea-drinking to the simple joy of street food, Mauritania’s culinary landscape is both rich and inviting.

Travel Tips

Currency and Payment Methods

The currency used in Mauritania is the Mauritanian ouguiya. It’s important to note that credit cards are not widely accepted, especially outside of Nouakchott, so carrying sufficient cash is advisable. ATM machines are available in the capital and some larger towns, but they may not always be reliable. Currency exchange services are available at the airport, banks, and authorized exchange bureaus.

Mauritanian ouguiya current exchange rates

  • 1000 MRU = $25.35 or $1 = 39.45  Mauritanian ouguiya
  • 1000 MRU = €23.69 or €1 = 42.22  Mauritanian ouguiya

Other currencies:

  • 1000 MRU = 20.32 British Pounds
  • 1000 MRU = 39.03 Australian Dollar
  • 1000 MRU = 34.79 Canadian Dollar
  • 1000 MRU = 277.60 Swedish Krona
  • 1000 MRU = 102.52 Polish Zloty
  • 1000 MRU = 596.19 Czech Koruna
  • 1000 MRU = 34,952.00 South Korean Won
  • 1000 MRU = 183.67 Chinese Yuan
  • 1000 MRU = 3,945.16 Japanese Yen

Safety Precautions

While Mauritania is generally safe for travelers, it’s always wise to exercise caution. Keep an eye on your belongings, especially in crowded places like markets. In remote areas, it’s recommended to travel in groups and, if possible, hire a local guide familiar with the region’s terrain and culture.

Health and Vaccinations

Prior to your trip, consult with a healthcare provider about necessary vaccinations and other health precautions. Malaria is a risk in certain areas, so antimalarial medication and mosquito repellents are advised. Access to healthcare facilities may be limited, particularly outside Nouakchott, so it’s a good idea to pack a basic first aid kit.

Local Etiquette

Mauritania is a predominantly Muslim country, and it’s important to respect local customs and traditions. Dress modestly, especially when visiting religious sites. Always ask for permission before taking photos of people. The Mauritanian way of life is generally relaxed and hospitable, and showing respect towards local customs will only enhance your experience.

Useful Websites

Mauritania is a land of contrasts, offering a blend of rich cultural experiences, stunning natural landscapes, and a history that stretches back centuries. Whether you’re an adventure-seeker exploring the Saharan dunes, a history buff marveling at ancient Islamic architecture, or a foodie eager to taste the local cuisine, Mauritania promises a travel experience like no other.

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